In the analytical description of crystallographic symmetry, group theory is an instrument of utmost importance. Regrettably, there was no time to introduce group theory during the school. The group-theoretical aspects of crystallography could only be mentioned occasionally but not treated systematically. Therefore, also in this pamphlet emphasis was put onto matrix methods. These are considered to be more basic from the point of view of applications. The group-theoretical methods can lead to a deeper insight into the crystallographic concepts and their relationships later.
I very much enjoyed the interest of the participants and the stimulating discussions with them and the other lecturers. The results of these discussions are taken into account in this manuscript. I should like to thank in particular the chair of the school, Karimat El-Sayed, as well as Farid Ahmed for their advice before, and Jenny Glusker and Farid Ahmed for improving the final version of this article. Brian McMahon has helped me with his technical expertise.
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