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J. Appl. Cryst. (1993). 26, 145

Structural and chemical analysis of materials. X-ray, electron, and neutron diffraction; X-ray, electron, and ion spectrometry; electron microscopy

By J. P. Eberhart

Pp. xxx + 545. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons, 1991
Price £95.00. lSBN 0-471-92977-8

This book gives a comprehensive treatment of the principles governing the use of electromagnetic and particle radiation in materials research. By identifying the concepts that are common to X-ray, electron, neutron and ion radiation, it succeeds in providing a coherent overview of interactions between matter and radiation.

The material is divided into five parts: (i) interactions of X-rays and particle beams with materials; (ii) radiation generation and measurement; (iii) the application of diffraction techniques to materials analysis; (iv) the application of X-ray, electron and secondary-ion spectrometry to materials analysis; (v) techniques of electron microscopy. Helpful cross references between chapters are given.

The first of these parts deals chiefly with the elastic scattering of X-rays, electrons and neutrons, with the development proceeding from generalized scattering objects, through discrete and continuous distributions of scattering matter, to diffraction by a crystal. The limitations of the kinetic approximation for electron diffraction are highlighted in a separate chapter, where the essential features of the dynamic theory are introduced. Consideration is also given to secondary emissions and the absorption of radiation. Thus photo-, secondary and Auger electrons are discussed, as are the generation of Bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-rays.

The second part gives a readable account of the essentials of radiation generation, focusing and filtering. The treatment of thermal neutrons is cursory, as this is considered to be too specialized a topic. The principles of the design of X-ray detectors (gas ionization and solid-state) are given, together with the essentials of WDX and EDX spectrometers. Brief consideration is also given to the detection of electrons and ions.

The third part of the book is divided into two long chapters, the first dealing with X-ray and neutron diffraction and the second with electron diffraction. The treatment is necessarily selective, with the emphasis on experimental considerations rather than on methods of solving structures. Although there are sections on the indexing of Laue patterns, rotation photographs and X-ray powder diffraction patterns, they provide more of an overview than a didactic treatment. The chapter on electron diffraction gives an adequate treatment of the indexing of single-crystal diffraction patterns and the merging of Laue zones in diffraction patterns. The principles of Kikuchi lines, CBD and LEED are also covered.

The fourth part is helpful in unravelling the acronyms that abound in spectroscopy, e.g. EXELFS, EPMA, with a glossary of these terms at the end of the book. Useful guidance in quantitative analysis is given for each of the techniques. The treatment covers elemental (XRF/EPMA) and surface (ESCA/XPS/AES/SAM) analysis, together with X-ray and electron-absorption techniques such as EXAFS and EELS. Surface analysis by SIMS is covered in a separate chapter. The final part, dedicated to techniques in electron microscopy, provides an interesting overview. Factors limiting resolution are discussed, as are the principles of bright- and dark-field imaging in TEM. A section on HREM presents the possibilities and limitations of structural imaging and summarizes the objectives of computerized image modelling. A chapter on SEM highlights the differences in forming images with secondary and back-scattered electrons. This is followed by a brief consideration of STEM, with the final chapter describing the contemporary interest in scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM).

The general standard of presentation is high, although there are a few blemishes and typographical errors. The book has been translated by the author from the original French version, published in 1989. The translation is generally excellent, apart from a very occasional unusual choice of word.

The book focuses on the principles of the physical techniques themselves, rather than on the structure of materials. Thus it will be of value to research workers in materials science, condensed-matter physics and solid-state chemistry. The book provides the essential background information on contemporary techniques and brings out their interrelationships most effectively. Bibliographies for each chapter, together with a list of primary references at the end of the book, give the reader helpful points of entry into the relevant literature.

Noel W. Thomas

School of Materials
University of Leeds
Leeds LS2 9JT

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