Acta Cryst. (1994). A50, 652-653
Pp. xiv + 1218.
Amsterdam: North Holland Elsevier Science Publishers, 1993
Price $388.50. ISBN 0-444-88908-6
These are the two parts of the first volume of a three-volume series planned for the growth of bulk crystals and thin films. One might expect from the title a `how-to-do-it' handbook, but the stated objective of the series is to expose the underlying scientific basis of crystal growth to help keep theory and practice in touch with each other. The two parts of this volume deal principally with the theory of crystal growth and include some results from experiments and computer simulations. Subsequent volumes are scheduled to cover growth techniques, mechanisms and phenomena. The chapters in this volume consist of largely unconnected reviews at an advanced level. Thus, the series is likely to be useful primarily as a reference work rather than as a textbook, although there is much tutorial material.
Chapter 1 (H. J. Scheel, 42 pp.) is an interesting historical review, beginning with Egyptian bronze casting in 1500 BC and containing 105 references dating from 1698 to 1991. Chapter 2 (R. F. Brebick, 60 pp.) covers the theory of phase equilibria, with applications to equilibria between two condensed phases, equilibria between a condensed phase and a vapor phase, compounds with a narrow homogeneity range and solid solutions. Chapter 3 ( H. Wenzel, W. A. Oates and K. Mika, 84 pp.) emphasizes the equilibria between point defects in silicon and in gallium arsenide, particularly in relation to solidification processes. Chapter 4 (B. Mutaftschiev, 61 pp.) deals with the theory of nucleation, including bulk phases and new atomic layers on a growing crystal surface. The emphasis of Chapter 5 (A. S. Myerson and A. F. Ismailov, 56 pp.) is on the structure of supersaturated solutions, including the most recent experimental measurements of the strange behavior and properties of supersaturated aqueous solutions of inorganic salts and organic compounds. For example, the value of the diffusion coefficient drops dramatically with increasing concentration beyond solubility and continues to decline with time after several days. These results are attributed to the formation of clusters of solute molecules. Chapter 6 (J. P. van der Eerden, 169 pp.) is a clear and thorough exposition of crystal growth mechanisms, with emphasis on the atomic processes occurring at the crystal surface. Chapter 7 (P. Bennema, 101 pp.) treats the morphology of growing crystals. Although crystal morphology is determined by kinetics rather than thermodynamics, the predictions of the two frequently coincide because the slowest growing faces are often (but not always) those with the lowest energy. Bennema shows how crystallographic considerations can be used to predict crystal morphology and gives several experimental examples. Chapter 8 (G. H. Gilmer, 53 pp.) presents the results of numerical simulations of atomic processes at crystal surfaces. Molecular-dynamic and Monte Carlo methods successfully reproduce, and help in understanding, experimental observations. The last chapter (J. E. Greene, 41 pp.) in Vol. 1a presents experimental results and molecular-dynamics simulations of film growth from low-energy ion sources.
Vol. 1b begins with Chapter 10 (A. A. Wheeler, 55 pp.), an introduction to transport processes, including diffusion, heat transfer and fluid motion. Chapter 11 (H. E. Huppert, 41 pp.) deals primarily with heat transfer during solidification of mixtures, including the formation of a mushy zone between the bulk solid and the bulk melt. Chapter 12 (S. R. Coriell and G. B. McFadden, 71 pp.) covers the theory of morphological stability, primarily for solidification from convection-free melts. This theory successfully predicts the breakdown of a planar interface to a cellular one, which is very deleterious for single-crystal growth. Chapter 13 (S. H. Davis, 37 pp.) shows that convection in the melt can lead to complex morphological behavior and can either promote or retard interface breakdown. Chapter 14 (B. Billia and R. Trivedi, 173 pp.) is a thorough treatment of experimental results and theory on the cellular and dendritic patterns that form when an interface breaks down during directional solidification. Chapter 15 (M. E. Glicksman and S. P. Marsh, 46 pp.) deals primarily with the relationship between tip curvature, undercooling, freezing rate and side branching of a single growing dendrite. Chapter 16 (P. Ramasamay, 81 pp.) is largely unconnected with the preceding chapters and deals with the theory and phenomena of electrocrystallization.
Don Hurle is to be congratulated for masterful editing of these volumes. We did not discover a single error in spelling, grammar or equations. On the other hand, with page costs so astronomically high, we regret that he did not provide more detailed instructions on content to the authors. There is too much avoidable duplication of material between the chapters. For example, the subject index reveals that two-dimensional nucleation is covered in three different chapters and is mentioned in several others. The subject index itself does not reveal all of the duplication. Thus, for example, the differential equation for conservation of a component is referred to once as `Fick's law' in the subject index and once as the `diffusion equation'. The same equation appears, however, in four other locations, but without being referenced in the index. There is no author index.
This series promises to fulfill the editor's objective in a definitive way. It is recommended as an introduction for the novice and as a reference work for the experienced student of crystal growth. We learned a great deal while reviewing these first two volumes.
Liya L. Regel
International Center for Gravity
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